History and Facts on American Newspaper Production from the Colonial Times Through the 1890s.

New York Times Press Run circa 1942 – Library of Congress Photograph

NEWSPAPER.-Printed sheets published at stated intervals, chiefly for the purpose of conveying intelligence on current events.

The Romans wrote out an account of the most memorable occurrences of the day, which were sent to public officials.  They were entitled Acta Durna, and read substantially like the local column of a country weekly paper of to-day.  Before the invention of printing letters were written regularly by persons in the chief capitals of Europe and dispatched to those who felt an interest in public affairs.  For this the correspondents were paid.  The earliest English journal in print was the Weekly Newes from Italy, Germanie, &c., in 1622, a prior newspaper preserved in the British Museum which contained an account of the Spanish Armada being regarded as a forgery.  The first attempt at reporting Parliament was made in 1641, and the first daily newspaper in England was the Daily Courant, in 1702.  The London Times was founded in 1788.  Long before this the Spectator, the Rambler and other journals had appeared, and a considerable number of special periodicals had been printed.  The Mercure François, beginning in 1605, was the earliest French newspaper.  The earliest German newspaper, the Frankfürter Oberpostamts-Zeitung, is still in existence. In began in 1616.  In Russia newspapers originated 1703, and in Holland in 1605.  European newspapers are of three types.  Those of France, Spain and Italy give comparatively little news, but much criticism and original light literature.  In Great Britain and its colonies the columns of a journal are devoted to reporting in a colorless way, but very fully, the affairs of the day, and they contain elaborate editorials upon public affairs. Private matters secure very little attention except when they come into court.  Their correspondence and editorial writing is generally executed by men of high education and wide information.  In Germany correspondence and restatements of public matters are the best points.  In most German newspapers there is little reading except of the dryest kind.  The chief centres of the press in Europe are in London, Paris, Berlin and Vienna, although the last two are far inferior to the others.  In Paris daily newspapers attain their highest circulation, passing in  one instance considerably beyond half a million.  London, however, spends more money on her journals that the other three capitals together, and by dint of perfect organization, lavish expenditure and excellent facilities in distribution is able to publish newspapers of the greatest value.

     In America the first journal appeared in Boston.  It was issued on September 25, 1690, and contained such reading matter that its further continuance was forbidden by the General Court.  The next was also in Boston, being the News-Letter.  It was issued on April 24, 1704, and lasted until 1776.  The Boston Gazette was issued on December 21, 1719, and the Philadelphia Weekly Mercury was started the next day.  On November 16, 1725, the Gazette was begun in New York.  In 1754 there were four newspapers published in Boston, two in New York, two in Philadelphia and one in Williamsburg, VA.  In 1776 there were thirty-seven in all of the colonies.  The early American newspapers were very small, and rarely published home news, the principal protion of their space being given up to extracts from foreign newspapers.  There was no local matter, except by accident.  Circulations were small, and the publisher, who was always the printer, was obliged to eke out a living by keeping a miscellaneous shop and attending to all sorts of commissions.  The first daily paper was the Philadephia Daily Advertiser, which began in 1784.  New York issued a daily paper the next year, but Boston did not have one until 1796.  The total number of newspapers published in the United States was in 1800, 200; 1810, 359, 1828, 852; 1830, 1,000; 1840, 1,631; 1850, 2,800; 1860, 4,051; 1870, 5,871; 1880, 11,314; and 1890, 16,948. All of the Atlantic seaboard States had newspapers in 1810, and in the Western States at that time Kentucky had 13,  Ohio 14, Tennessee 6, Indiana and Michigan each 1.  The earliest newspapers beyond the Alleghanies were in Pittsburg in 1786, and in Lexington, KY., in 1787.  The earliest newspapers away from tide-water was in Rochester, N.Y., in 1826.  Newspapers were published on the Pacific coast, at San Francisco, as soon as that city came under the control of the Americans.  Of late every town has one or more newspapers, and there is scarcely a village so small that one has not been attempted.

      The advancement of the newspapers in the United States has followed that of the development of road, railways and steamboats.  A New York newspaper can now be read in Chicago within twenty-five hours of its issue.  Fifteen years ago it would have taken thirty-six hours, and thirty years ago forty-eight hours. In the early part of the century it would have taken a man traveling express a month to carry it to Chicago.  This improvement in transit had rendered it possible to send newspapers in all directions to great distances. Paper has lessened in cost.  In 1810 the exertions of two pressmen, worth between them two dollars and a half for a day’s work, were requisite to print twelve hundred sheets on both sides.  Now on the ordinary cylinder press it takes one man half an hour, as he prints equal to four of the former sheets at once.  Every other facility has been increased.  The first great change was about 1817, when iron presses took twice as large a sheet as before.  In 1825 power0presses multiplied their speed by four, and 1847 this was again quadrupled by the lightning press.  The steamboat in 1807 made a great improvement in communication between places which were lying upon the water, giving them far better facilities, and about 1830 railroads were put into operation.  Thus when the first attempts were made to publish cheap daily newspapers they proved successful.  The cities had grown large enough to require many copies themselves, and inland places also bought largely.  The Sun in New York was the first successful penny daily.  It was speedily followed by others like the Philadelphia Ledger.  The principle of selling the journal to the carrier or newsboy was a great step in advance, and that of demanding prompt pay for advertising was another.  Successive improvements, detailed elsewhere, have much strengthened the newspaper press.  The use of the telegraph has equalized all places of like size, and new methods applied to the collection of news have so increased the interest felt that cities of one hundred thousand inhabitants now demand more copies of newspapers that those of half a million did thirty or thirty-five years ago.

     Newspapers call for the largest proportion of printing in the United States.  There is no town in which printing is done in which a newspaper is not published, and in most instances the work upon them take the larger share of the business.  The revenues of the newspaper printing-houses far exceed those of book and job offices, and the profits on similar investments are larger.  It is usual to divide newspapers into two classes, general and special.  Many are devoted to specialties, as law, trade, agriculture, or religion.  Some are collections of miscellany and novels, while others are devoted to subjects in which the world takes very little interest.  They are further divided as to frequency of issue.  The daily press is more powerful than the weekly, as it repeats its arguments and its comments day after day, and its news is given when it is fresh and the greatest interest is felt in it.  There are besides tri-weeklies, semi-weeklies, bi-weeklies, semi-monthlies, monthlies, bi-monthlies, quarterlies and annuals.  The last four are generally known as periodicals, a term which really applies to all journals.  Efforts have been made to establish newspapers which shall appear twice a day, but without success, although morning and evening editions are frequent, and it is not uncommon to see a morning and an evening paper issued from the same office, taking substantially the same view of public questions.  An early edition of an evening newspaper has been tried, the journal covering all of the ground from midnight until 7 or 8 o’clock in the morning, and late editions of evening papers have also been published containing sporting news.

     Daily newspapers are issued either in the morning or evening.  The latter, when only on edition is put forth, issue at about 3 o’clock; but when the city is considerable size its earliest edition will appear at about 1 o’clock, a second will be published at about 2:30. and a third at about 4 o’clock.  Frequently more editions than three are demanded.  Every page is not made up again, only two or three needing attention on an eight-page paper, and on a four-page paper perhaps only one.  The editors are usually at work at 8 o’clock, and they and the reporters labor until about the time of going to press.  In New York and some other cities no effort is made to collect for the next day and independent news of what happens after the paper is ready, or to publish anything then unreported, but morning newspapers give the news for the twenty-four hours.  In smaller cities the practice on both morning and evening journals is alike; everything which is interesting and previously un-narrated in a certain journal is inserted, no matter when it happened.  When the journal is weak pecuniarily much of the matter is extracted from other newspapers, sometimes being written over, but more commonly borrowed, with or without acknowledgment.  All the daily newspapers devote very much space and attention to their local news.  In the smallest towns this is absolutely necessary, if the paper is to succeed.  In such towns a column of brevier copy can be obtained for each five thousand inhabitants, this news being on a scale of such minuteness as to interest some persona in every street or neighborhood.  If the journal in a city of a hundred thousand in habitants were to imitate this example it would have too much local copy, although much more important events occur there.  Telegraphic news is obtained from one of the news associations, the Associated Press or the United Press, which charge in different parts of the country from twenty dollars a week upwards.  If the newspaper cannot afford this expenditure the American Press or the United Press, which charge in different parts of the country from twenty dollars a week upwards.  If the newspaper cannot afford this expenditure the American Press Association will furnish a summary of the news of the day and any miscellany which may be desired.   The shape is that of stereotype plates, so that no composition is required.  Telegraph copy is without any perspective.  The most trifling and the most important matter is sent, and the custom of most editors is to publish all, instead of editing what is received and throwing away that which is worthless.  Morning newspapers have more time to prepare their copy and to set it up that the evening papers, and generally they are richer.  They buy far more copy, and they have more special telegraphic dispatches and more correspondence.

     Ti-weeklies and semi-weeklies are not now so common as in former years.  As a rule they are made up from daily newspaper.  Many country dailies have all of their reading matter on two pages alongside of each other.  By holding these two pages over from one day until the next, and then allowing the reading matter of Tuesday to back that of Monday, a tri-weekly is produced with a minimum of labor.  Sometimes even the dates are not changed, and the paper has the same head inside and outside.  Semi-weeklies are got up with a little greater care, but not much more.  They are taken from three days’ issue.  Several long-established semi-weeklies have died within the last decade, as there was no longer any demand for them.

     Weekly newspapers are more important than any other kind except dailies.  They are continually multiplying, largely because readers like special journals, conveying particular news or ideas, and largely because they are published conveniently for the readers.  Most post-offices in the United States are not so situated that their daily mails can be distributed as received.  A visit once or twice a week to a post-office is all for which most farmers can find time, and in many cases two ro three weeks elapse between calls.  By agreement with neighbors, each taking turns in going to the post-office, papers and letters can be obtained more frequently.  The local newspapers are in large type; they contain the local news and a sufficient summary of the matter, with a proportion of miscellany.  They thus become very important factors in country life.  See WEEKLY NEWSPAPERS. (1.)

     (1.) Weekly.—A weekly newspaper.  [The greatest number of journals in this country and all others are issued weekly.  In 1898 there were in the United States 1,185 dailies, 14,017 weeklies and 4,134 other periodicals.  In the British Provinces there were 95 dailies, 589 weeklies and 234 other periodicals.  There is no community, however small, where there is not enough news to render a journal readable, and the expense of carrying on one is a trifle.  A weekly is also adapted for all special purposes, such as religion, trade or art.  Many weekly newspapers are a fortune in themselves.]

     Bi-weekly and semimonthly newspapers are usually issued in cities, and do not contain general news.  They are published at such intervals because their circle of reader is small, or because there is not enough pecuniary return to justify a more frequent issue.  Occasionally, also, they are controlled by the fact that the mails ae available only at these times.

     Monthly periodicals are treated to some extent under MAGAZINE, but some real newspapers are published at intervals as long as this.  Bi-monthlies and quarterlies are really magazines, except when intended to be given away, and annuals and semi-annuals are books to all intents and purposes.

     The subdivisions of newspapers as to subject are very numerous.  Trade journals in the United States date from 1830, when the Railroad Journal was established.  It is still published.  Religious newspapers were begun near the beginning of the century, and agricultural journals at about the same time.  Excellent papers are now published concerning agriculture, horticulture, finance, banking, printing, education, religion, secret societies, advertising, art, the army and navy, books, mechanical trades, children, commerce, cooking fashions, science, insurance, labor unions, machinery, music sports, medicines, law, temperance, real estate, paper, stationery, lumber, history and biography.  The total number of classes would be two or three hundred.

     Another development has been that of papers in foreign languages.  Bradford and his contemporaries and Boston printers issued books in Dutch, German and French, but it was not until after the Revolution that journals in foreign languages were issued, with the exception of German.  The greater number of these periodicals are now in German.  In Pennsylvania there are many American families in which German is spoken more easily than English, although their ancestors came here a hundred and fifty years ago, and there has been a large immigration of Germans for the past fifty years.  There are now about five hundred German newspapers in the United States.  After these come Danish, Swedish, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Dutch, Bohemian, Polish, Hungarian, Welsh and Armenian.  Many other languages are spoken within the limits of the United States, but there are not enough of one nation in any one place to support a newspaper.  These languages die out slowly.  The Germans began to come to this country in numbers in 1710.  For eighty years after 1765 there was little immigration.  Yet the German-speaking population steadily increased. Welsh became common in the vicinity of Utica in 1820, and to this day in some neighborhoods that language is as important as English.  The number of Dutch families which settled New York colony did not, it is thought, exceed three thousand.  There are, however, probably more than three thousand families in the State in which Dutch is understood, and it will take another century for this language to die out.  It never had many schools; little printing was executed in it, and preaching in Dutch ceased, as a rule, more than half a century ago.

     The various persons engaged in the production and publication of newspapers are publishers, deliverers, mailing-hands, carriers, newsboys, pressmen, engineers, feeders, compositors, proof-readers, draughtsmen, stereo-typers, editors, reporters, correspondents and advertising men.  Besides these are the usual clerks and porters.  No daily paper could be published in New York or Chicago employing less than a hundred persons; in many there will be three or four hundred, and it may possibly reach in some cases to nearly one thousand.  Among those charged with peculiar and responsible duties is the person who reads or examines all of the copy to prevent duplication.  The city editor keeps a diary of events to come, so that he can make preparation for reporting them as the time draws nigh, and there should be another person whose duty it is to watch with close attention general events in the same way.

     On one daily newspaper there are three indexers, who index every event of any importance under its subject with cross references, not only in that journal, but in its important contemporaries.  Thus, whatever happens, a reference to the same subject is almost certainly forth-coming.  Still another is an obituary writer, who receives all of the clippings relating to living persons, and puts them away awaiting the time when death shall demand that the extracts shall be brought forth again.  Many have already been written.  Should any public man die half an hour before a great journal goes to press the account of his life is handed to the printer, and it will appear the next morning.

     The compensation of writers on newspapers follows no general rule.  In New York city, where the highest prices are paid, the editor-in-chief will receive from five thousand dollars a year up to fifteen thousand.  One obtains more than twice the larger sum.  Managing editors receive from three thousand dollars up to twelve thousand, and writers of leaders from two thousand to six thousand.  City editors have from forty to eighty dollars a week; excellent reporters on first-class daily papers are paid from forty to sixty dollars; good reporters from thirty to forty on the same journals, or from twenty-five to thirty on papers of lower standing; and miscellaneous reporters and writers on daily and weekly journals get from twenty to thirty dollars.  Minor editorial positions are worth about thirty dollars.  On weekly papers prices are less.  An editor may receive fifty dollars a week, but on many he will obtain no more that thirty-five.  On small newspapers the editors will receive less, and the minor writers from fifteen to twenty.  Much copy is written on the daily and large weekly journals by SPACE, which see.  A foreman of a large daily paper will receive fifty dollars a week, but on a smaller one not more than thirty-five.  The publisher is paid from three to fifteen thousand dollars a year, the latter figure being exceptionally high.

     The chief centres of newspapers in this country are the great cities, but they do not follow the order of size.  Brooklyn, the fourth city in magnitude, has fewer dailies and fewer weeklies that many towns no more tha a sixth or seventh of its magnitude, has fewer dailies and fewer weeklies than many towns no more than a sixth or seventh of it magnitude.  The reason is plain.  It is overshadowed by its neighbor across the river.  Many Brooklyn people never see a Brooklyn newspaper, although they are constantly buying one published in New York, where, of course, more newspapers are issues than in any other city, Philadelphia and Chicago coming next on about anequality.  After these come Boston, St. Louis and Cincinnati.  Baltimore and New Orleans are both far behind; but San Francisco rather surpasses the last.  St. Paul and Minneapolis, considered by their daily press, are very high up in the ranks.  Some of the small cities publish many more newspapers in proportion to their population than the larger, and these are frequently very good.  Springfield, Mass., and Augusta, Me., may be given as examples.  The order in which American cities stood in 1880 in regard to daily circulation was New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Cleveland, Brooklyn, Detroit, New Orleans, Indianapolis, Washington, Albany and Providence.  The official returns for 1890 have not yet come to hand, but the relative standing has no doubt been much altered.  In Pittsburg five papers were taken by seven persons, and in New York and San Francisco five papers by eight persons.  In Jersey City there was only one newspaper to eleven inhabitants, and in Brooklyn only one to twelve.  The explanation of this is that Pittsburg and San Francisco have no competitors in their own region, while New York journals circulate throughout the whole country.  Jersey City and Brooklyn are swallowed up by New York, which is the centre of all news.

     A daily paper is not generally issued in towns having less than fifteen thousand inhabitants.  Two weekly newspapers are published at nearly every county seat, and one in other villages having a thousand population.  When the village reaches three thousand population it has two weeklies, and when it has five thousand population there are three.  The number does not often exceed four or five until a daily paper is begun.  A city with twenty thousand population will have two dailies, with forty thousand three, with sixty thousand four, and when it passes one hundred thousand there may be five.  After this point one is added to each fifty thousand until about ten are published.  The largest number of dailies in any one city in 1880 was 29, which was in New York.  Philadelphia had 24; San Francisco, 21; Chicago, 18; Cincinnati, 12; Boston, 11; and New Orleans, 10.  Brooklyn had only 5 and Louisville 5.  In New York there are now 41.

     A very large proportion of the newspapers are now sold by news agents, who receive as their own one-quarter to one-half of the whole of the price named by the publisher.  In the cities where news agents do no purchase largely the carriers must be paid for their services and collectors must be employed.  The receipts for advertising on daily papers constitute about one-half of the total income, but on weeklies and all others 39 per cent.  The receipts of the daily press in 1880 were estimated by Mr. North and $43, 702,113, and other periodicals at $45,306,961, a total of $89,009,074.  It would be safe to estimate that the increase for the last twelve years has not been less than 70 per cent., when we consider the prodigious growth of the newspapers in the great cities, the diminution of the price of paper and ink, and the assiduous cultivation of the art of gathering advertisements.  This is about the rate for the preceding decade, and would bring the total for to-day to $151,315,425.

     Newspapers, as a rule, are not very long lived.  Only one or two of those which started before the Revolution are still in existence, and the number which have maintained their footing for half a century is small, even when the identity of a present paper with a former one of the same name is considered.  In many cases there are gaps of five or ten years.  In New York only one newspaper is a hundred years old, and two have attained the age of ninety.  A list of the deaths of daily newspapers in New York since 1830 would considerably exceed two hundred.  Each represents hopes and aspirations, hard work and money.  The suspended newspaper publications in 1892 in the whole country, according to Rowell’s Newspaper Directory, were 1,826, and the new journals begun were 2,721.  Many end competition and existence by consolidation with other periodicals.

     A very large proportion of American newspapers are issued on what is popularly known as the patent inside or outside plan. By this method only a part of the matter is set by the journal itself, as purchases the sheet partly printed.  The price to the customer is only so much a quire, and for three to six dollars he will obtain paper sufficient for the whole edition of an ordinary country weekly, with as much printing upon it as would cost him from twenty to fifty dollars for composition.  As a rule, the part executed before it reaches the country printer is better than the remainder, and the reading matter is also better.  In the central office three or four thousand ems are set up each week, and selections from this quantity of matter are printed in two or three hundred newspapers.  Thus the cost of typesetting is reduced to a minimum; paper is bought in large quantities, and presswork is executed under favorable circumstances.  There is of course some delay in changing from one newspaper to the other, but practice has shown many methods of saving time.  These central offices generally reserve a certain proportion of space of advertising which they insert, and much of the energies of their managers are taken up in efforts to gather such notices.  There are perhaps twenty co-operative offices of this kind in the United States, most of them belonging to one or two combination.  See PARTLY PRINTED NEWSPAPERS.

     An analysis of the statistics given in 1890 by George Pl Rowell shows that the weekly papers represent 75 per cent. Of all the newspapers and periodicals in the country, the monthlies about 12 ½ per cent., and the dailies 9 ½ per cent.  The remaining 3 per cent. Is divided among the semi-monthlies, semi-weeklies, quarterlies, bi-weeklies, bi-monthlies and tri-weeklies, their frequency being in the order given.  The  United States and the British Province issue newspapers in the order as given below, only the first four publishing as many as a thousand each, the next ten beyond two hundred, the next fifteen beyond a hundred, and the last six below one hundred.  Nevada was the smallest, with 24, and New York was the largest, with 1,778.  The Territories together stand halfway and publish 290.  The list is as follows:  New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Dominion of Canada, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Massachusetts, Indiana, Michigan, Nebraska, California, Wisconsin, Texas, Minnesota, New Jersey, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, South Dakota, Tennessee, the Territories, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Connecticut, Maryland, Alabama, Maine, Mississippi, Louisiana, Washington, West Virginia, Oregon, New Hampshire, Florida, South Carolina, North Dakota, Vermont, District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Montana, Delaware and Nevada.  Of these 5,426 publications issued 500 copies each; 3,341,250 or less; 2,351,750; 2,016, 1,000; 1,181, 1,500; 612, 2,000; 503, 2,500; 506; 3,000; 432, 4,000; and 364, 5,000.  Three hundred and withy-three circulated between 7,500 and 10,000.  Those going beyond this were 615.  The highest number classified was 150,000, although there is no doubt and six or eight periodical surpass this figure.  One-fourth of all periodicals which are sold, and Pennsylvania, Illinois and Massachusetts print more that another quarter.

     The amount of type set on each newspaper of the daily press in 1880 averaged 74,147 ems, which it is probable has since been exceeded by at least ten thousand.  The entire quantity then set by all of the daily press of the United States was 66,140,266 ems.  If we take this to average minion at eleven ems to the inch the quantity would make a line niety-five miles long each day, advancing during the hours of composition at the rate of nearly ten miles an hour.  It was estimated that there was in use on these newspapers 6,689,878 pounds of type.  It is impossible to estimate the capital employed, as most journals have been started by men without means, and the growth in the way of sales and advertising did not require as great a corresponding increase in plant or in ready cash for expenses.  On weekly newspapers which are paying expenses it considered that capital enough of the outgoes of three months is sufficient, and most projectors for daily newspapers believe that a year’s expenses will expenses will equal the amount of capital required to put an enterprise of that kind on a paying basis.  Thus for a journal published at an expense of $500 a day $150,000 would be required.  Part would be sunk in each of the first three years, but in the fourth year the paper would make a moderate profit.  In ten years it might clear $30,000 or $40,000 a year.  If there was little competition, or the competition was so weak that it could be disregarded, less time and money would be sufficient.  In the weekly the rule above given would require that one costing $100 a week should have on hand, $1,300 capital to begin with in addition to its type.  There are twenty daily papers in the United States which are estimated to be worth over $1,000,000 each, and two or three are said to valued at $2,000,000 each.  This valuation would nt be far from their gross receipts each year.  The common estimate of valuation is five years’ net profits; but few publishers would sell for this.

     There are no very recent statistics relating to the press of the whole world.  The lates known to the writer are those given by H.P. Hubbard of New Haven, in 1881.  There were then supposed to be from 32,000 to 35,000 newspapers in existence, 11,000 or 12,000 being in the United States.  There are now in the United States and the British Provinces about 20,000 newspapers, and probably the remainder of the world will afford from 25,000 to 28,000.  In 1881 Germany had 5,529 newspapers, England 8,460, France 3,265, Austria-Hungary 1,802, Italy 1, 174, Spain 750, British America 624, Belgium 591, Switzerland 512, Russia 454, the Netherlands 435

      Australia 341, British India 373, Sweden 303, Mexico 283.  The largest circulations were in the United States, England, Germany and France.  In no other country did the newspaper circulation equal one-quarter of that of the French journals.  There were forty-nine countries in all.

     With the greater number of newspapers the largest expense is composition, but those with large circulation find that paper is the greatest item of cost, and editorial expenses, including telegraphing, come second.  Taking the outgoes of the New York Tribune for two years and the New York Sun for one year, the following analysis is reached: Tribune, 1865—Paper, 51 per cent.; composition, 12 per cent.; mailing, 6 per cent.; advertising, 1 per cent.; postage, 1 per cent.; United States tax on advertising, 1 per cent.; gaslight, 1 per cent.

     Tribune, 1866—Paper, 48: composition, 10; editorial expenses, 22; pressroom, 5; mailing, 4; publishing-office, salaries, 3; ink, 1; postage, 2; gaslight, 1; United States tax on advertising, 1; gaslight, 1.

     Sun, 1876—Paper, 45 per cent.; composition, 10; editorial expenses, 24; pressroom, 7; mailing, 1; publishing office, salaries, 3; ink, 1; postage, 2; gaslight, 1.

     The glue and molasses for rollers cost one-tenth as much as the ink.  That varied from 22 to 24 per cent. Of the other pressroom expenses, and was about a fortieth of the amount spent on paper.  The total expenses of the Tribune in the first year given were $646,107.86; in the second$885, 158/39; and for the Sun, supposing the week published was just average of a year, they were $824, 752.43.

     The quantity of white paper consumed upon a leading newspaper is now twice as great as at the times when the Tribune and Sun made their statements.  The amount used by the  Boston Herald in a recent year was worth $315,00; by the Boston Globe, $326,000; by the Chicago News, $324,000; and by the New York World, $667,500.  One newspaper in Atlanta, Ga., the Constitution, needed $63,000 worth of paper, and the Journal of Kansas City required $53,000.  The weekly composition bills of several journal, as stated, were for the Philadelphia Ledger, $2,150; the New York Time, $3,000; the New York Herald, $3,780; the Boston Globe, $4,100; and the New York World, $6,000.

Source: American Dictionary of Printing and Bookmaking – 1894

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Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence, do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men inexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is necessary [...] Read more →

Growing Muscadine Grapes in Tennessee

The University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee has a long heralded tradition of assisting farmers and growers through it’s Agricultural Extension Service. The following bulletin entitled Grape Growing in Tennessee discusses the Muscadine variety of grapes among others. Muscadine grapes are often found growing wild in Tennessee. On my grandfather’s West Tennessee [...] Read more →

Platform of the American Institute of Banking in 1919

Resolution adapted at the New Orleans Convention of the American Institute of Banking, October 9, 1919:

“Ours is an educational association organized for the benefit of the banking fraternity of the country and within our membership may be found on an equal basis both employees and employers; and in full appreciation [...] Read more →

Parting Words to Kate from The Sloop of War, Jamestown

Sloop of War Jamestown – Photo from book The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series 1, Vol. 3.

Several years ago, I purchased a small memory book entitled Album of Love from the mid 1800s.

Much like scrap books of today, these books were used to keep [...] Read more →

Historic authenticity of the Spanish SAN FELIPE of 1690

Model of San Felipe

Reprinted from FineModelShips.com with the kind permission of Dr. Michael Czytko

The SAN FELIPE is one of the most favoured ships among the ship model builders. The model is elegant, very beautifully designed, and makes a decorative piece of art to be displayed at home or in [...] Read more →

The Late Rev. H.M. Scarth

H. M. Scarth, Rector of Wrington

By the death of Mr. Scarth on the 5th of April, at Tangier, where he had gone for his health’s sake, the familiar form of an old and much valued Member of the Institute has passed away. Harry Mengden Scarth was bron at Staindrop in Durham, [...] Read more →

Classic Restoration of a Spring Tied Upholstered Chair

This video by AT Restoration is the best hands on video I have run across on the basics of classic upholstery. Watch a master at work. Simply amazing.

Tools:

Round needles: https://amzn.to/2S9IhrP Double pointed hand needle: https://amzn.to/3bDmWPp Hand tools: https://amzn.to/2Rytirc Staple gun (for beginner): https://amzn.to/2JZs3x1 Compressor for pneumatic [...] Read more →

A History of the Use of Arsenicals in Man

The arsenicals (compounds which contain the heavy metal element arsenic, As) have a long history of use in man – with both benevolent and malevolent intent. The name ‘arsenic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘arsenikon’ which means ‘potent'”. As early as 2000 BC, arsenic trioxide, obtained from smelting copper, was used [...] Read more →

Books Condemned to be Burnt

BOOKS CONDEMNED TO BE BURNT.

By

JAMES ANSON FARRER,

LONDON

ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW

1892

———-

WHEN did books first come to be burnt in England by the common hangman, and what was [...] Read more →

U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act – Full Text

UNITED STATES PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION ACT

TITLE I – PLANT VARIETY PROTECTION OFFICE Chapter Section 1. Organization and Publications . 1 2. Legal Provisions as to the Plant Variety Protection Office . 21 3. Plant Variety Protection Fees . 31

CHAPTER 1.-ORGANIZATION AND PUBLICATIONS Section 1. Establishment.2 There is [...] Read more →

The Master of Hounds

Photo Caption: The Marquis of Zetland, KC, PC – otherwise known as Lawrence Dundas Son of: John Charles Dundas and: Margaret Matilda Talbot born: Friday 16 August 1844 died: Monday 11 March 1929 at Aske Hall Occupation: M.P. for Richmond Viceroy of Ireland Vice Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire Lord – in – Waiting [...] Read more →