Origin of the Apothecary

ORIGIN OF THE APOTHECARY.

The origin of the apothecary in England dates much further back than one would suppose from what your correspondent, “A Barrister-at-Law,” says about it. It is true he speaks only of apothecaries as a distinct branch of the medical profession, but long before Henry VIII’s time they were recognized as a distinct branch, though the distinction may not have been a legal one.

The earliest mention I remember to have seen in English of an apothecary is one I have cited before in these notes, from Bardsley’s “English Surnames.” In 1273, says Bardsley, “the Mayor of York was one John Le Espicer, aut Apotecarius.” Here “spicer” and “apothecary”‘ appear to be convertible terms, but it is clear, from the passage in Chaucer alone. “Ful redy hadde he hise apothecaries,” that these were a distinct class, and Caxton distinguishes the “physician, spicer, apotiquare” from one another.

In England as in France, “Qui est espicier n’est pas apothicaire, et qui est apothicaire est espicier,” and as time went on the difference between them grew, the apothecaries confining themselves particularly to drugs. Your correspondent is rather unfair to the apothecarics when he says, speaking of them as a separate class, that they began as quacks. They began as assistants to the physicians. Earle, in describing the physician of his day, speaks repeatedly of “his” apothecary’s shop. They were subject to the supervision of the physicians, and stood to them in much the relation enjoined by the law of the Emperor Frederick II. regulating medical practice in the Sicilies.—Chem. & Drug., Sept. 1921

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Land of Hope and Glory: British Country Life – Fox Hunting

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Mocking Bird Food

Mocking Bird Food.

Hemp seed……….2 pounds
Rape seed………. .1 pound
Crackers………….1 pound
Rice…………….1/4 pound
Corn meal………1/4 pound
Lard oil…………1/4 pound

 

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Flawed Law – The Hunting Act

Click here to read the full text of the Hunting Act – 2004

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Furniture Polishing Cream

Furniture Polishing Cream.

Animal oil soap…………………….1 onuce
Solution of potassium hydroxide…. .5 ounces
Beeswax……………………………1 pound
Oil of turpentine…………………..3 pints
Water, enough to make……………..5 pints

Dissolve the soap in the lye with the aid of heat; add this solution all at once to the warm solution of the wax in the oil. Beat the mixture until a smooth cream is formed, and gradually beat in the water until the whole is completely emulsified.

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Cleaner for Gilt Picture Frames

Cleaner for Gilt Frames.

Calcium hypochlorite…………..7 oz.
Sodium bicarbonate……………7 oz.
Sodium chloride………………. 2 oz.
Distilled water…………………12 oz.

 

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The Billesden Coplow Run

Smith, Charles Loraine; The Billesdon Coplow Run, Leicestershire

*note – Billesdon and Billesden have both been used to name the hunt.

BILLESDEN COPLOW POEM

[From “Reminiscences of the late Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq”]

The run celebrated in the following verses took place on the 24th of February, 1800, when Mr. Meynell hunted Leicestershire, and has since been known as the Billesden Coplow Run. It will only cease to interest, says a writer in the Sporting Magazine, when the grass shall grow in winter in the streets of Melton Mowbray. They found in the covert from which the song takes its name, thence to Skeffington Earths, past Tilton Woods, by Tugby and Whetstone, where the field, as many as could get over, crossed the river Soar. Thence the hounds changing their fox, carried a head to Enderby Gorse, where they lost him, after a chase of two hours and fifteen minutes, the distance being twenty-eight miles. Continue reading The Billesden Coplow Run

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The Hunt Saboteur


The Hunt Saboteur is a national disgrace
barking out loud, black mask on her face
get those dogs off,
get them off she did yell
until a swift kick from me mare
her voice it did quell
and sent the Hunt Saboteur scurrying up vale
to the full cry of hounds
drowning out her wails
whilst down in the valley
the hounds did prevail
and now on me hearth hangs a fine tail
as me and my hounds share
a bucket of ale

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Pickled Eels

This dish is a favorite in Northern Europe, from the British Isles to Sweden.

Clean and skin the eels and cut them into pieces about 3/4-inch thick. Wash and drain the pieces, then dredge in fine salt and allow to stand from 30 minutes to 1 hour.  Rinse off the salt, wipe the pieces dry, and rub them with a cut glove of garlic.  Brush the eel with melted butter and broil until both sides are light brown.  As an alternative, pieces may be sautéd in olive oil or other good salad oil.

Place the pieces of cooked eel on absorbent paper.  When the pieces are cool, pack them in layers in a crock with a scattering of sliced onion, allspice, bay leaves, mustard seed, whole cloves, peppers, and mace between the layers of fish. Continue reading Pickled Eels

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Mrs. Beeton’s Poultry & Game – Choosing Poultry

To Choose Poultry.

When fresh, the eyes should be clear and not sunken, the feet limp and pliable, stiff dry feet being a sure indication that the bird has not been recently killed; the flesh should be firm and thick and if the bird is plucked there should be no discoloration of the skin.  Young male birds are considered the best.

Chickens, —The flesh of young chickens is the most delicate and easily assimilated of animal foods, which makes it especially suitable for invalids and persons whose digestion is weak.  Few animals undergo so great a change with regard to the quality of their flesh as the domestic fowl.   When quite young, cocks and hens are equally tender, but as chickens grow older the flesh of the cock is the first to toughen, and a cock a year old is fit only for conversion into soup.  A hen of the same age affords a substantial and palatable dish. This rule respecting age does not apply to capons, which when well-fed and well-dressed for the table, are surpassed by few animals for delicacy of flavour.  Even when three years old the capon is as tender as a chicken, with the additional advantage that his proper chicken flavour is more fully developed. The above remarks are applicable only to capons naturally fed and not crammed.  The latter process may produce a handsome-looking and heavy bird, but when tested by cooking its inferiority will be only too apparent.  As a rule, small-boned and short-legged poultry are generally found to be the more delicate in colour, flavour and fineness of flesh. Continue reading Mrs. Beeton’s Poultry & Game — Choosing Poultry

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Here’s Many a Year to You

Here’s many a year to you !
Sportsmen who’ve ridden life straight.
Here’s all good cheer to you !
Luck to you early and late.

Here’s to the best of you !
You with the blood and the nerve.
Here’s to the rest of you !
What of a weak moment’s swerve ?
Face the grim fence, gate, or wall again :
Ride hard and straight in the van,
Life is to dare and deserve ! ”

1908. RH Carlisle

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Proper Wines to Serve with Food

Foie gras with Sauternes

As an Appetizer

  • Pale dry Sherry, with or without bitters, chilled or not.  Plain or mixed Vermouth, with or without bitters. A dry cocktail.

With Oysters, Clams or Caviar

  • A dry flinty wine such as Chablis, Moselle, Champagne.

Continue reading Proper Wines to Serve with Food

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Fox Hunting – A Great British Tradition

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The Beaufort Hunt 1914

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Napoleon’s Pharmacists

NAPOLEON’S PHARMACISTS.

Of the making of books about Napoleon there is no end, and the centenary of his death (May 5) is not likely to pass without adding to the number, but a volume on Napoleon”s pharmacists still awaits treatment by the student in this field of historical research. There is no lack of material. Not that Napoleon had any faith in drugs. Even during his fatal illness at St. Helena he caused his doctors ceaseless anxiety by his petty tendency to offer any or every excuse for shirking regular doses. But he knew that others thought differently, and delighted to tell the tale of a certain bread pill administered to the Empress Marie Louise by Baron Corvisart, and its marvellous effects. He seems to have taken an intelligent interest in chemistry, and even to have studied its rudiments with Bouillon-Lagrange in his earlier days. W’hen he reorganized France after the Revolution he appreciated the collaboration of men like Chaptal, and gained their devotion and admiration by his own wonderful intellectual activity and physical energy. Continue reading Napoleon’s Pharmacists

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Fly Casting Instructions

It is a pity that the traditions and literature in praise of fly fishing have unconsciously hampered instead of expanded this graceful, effective sport.  Many a sportsman has been anxious to share its joys, but appalled by the rapture of expression in describing its countless thrills and niceties he has been literally scared away from attempting to master the difficulties which he assumes must attend such an art.  And thereby he has barred himself needlessly from an infinite wealth of sport and enjoyment. Continue reading Fly Casting Instructions

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Salmon Caviar

Salmon and Sturgeon Caviar – Photo by Thor

Salmon caviar was originated about 1910 by a fisherman in the Maritime Provinces of Siberia, and the preparation is a modification of the sturgeon caviar method (Cobb 1919). Salomon caviar has found a good market in the U.S.S.R. and other European countries where it is known as “red caviar” to distinguish it from the sturgeon or “black caviar”.  Although several attempts have been made to manufacture salmon caviar in the United States, only a few firms in the Pacific Northwest have operated successfully on a commercial scale. Their product is marketed mostly in New York and other eastern cities.  A salmon-canning firm operating in the Bristol Ba area of Alaska also prepares salmon caviar, principally for export. Continue reading Salmon Caviar

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Commercial Tuna Salad Recipe

Tuna fish being weighed on quay-side in Greece – Photo by Tom Oates

No two  commercial tuna salads are prepared by exactly the same formula, but they do not show the wide variety characteristic of herring salad.  The recipe given here is typical.  It is offered, however, only as a guide.  The same recipe with minor variations to suit the taste may be used for salmon salad.

Tuna Salad I

Ingredients. Continue reading Commercial Tuna Salad Recipe

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Commercial Fried Fish Cake Recipe

Dried Norwegian Salt Cod

Fried fish cakes are sold rather widely in delicatessens and at prepared food counters of department stores in the Atlantic coastal area. This product has possibilities for other sections of the country.

Ingredients: Continue reading Commercial Fried Fish Cake Recipe

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Making Chocolate From Tree to Treat

Donate to the YouTube site owner Gabe and he might send you some chocolate….

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Copper Kills Covid-19 and the Sun is Your Friend

The element copper effectively kills viruses and bacteria.

Therefore it would reason and I will assert and not only assert but lay claim to the patents for copper mesh stints to be inserted in the arteries of patients presenting with severe cases of Covid-19 with a slow release dosage of Copper Sulfate woven in, those in need of ventilators and on death’s edge.  I also lay claim to any and all copper mesh filtering systems for ventilator tubing and facial masks.  I have a partner in this whom will not be named, a brilliant chemist who will be entitled to split any and all financial benefit from such claims. Continue reading Copper Kills Covid-19 and the Sun is Your Friend

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Carpet Cleaner Formulae

Carpet Cleaners.

Powder Form

Sal soda…8 ounces av. (hydrated sodium carbonate)( Na2CO3∙10H2O) or soda ash.
Borax…….4 ounces av.
Both should be in powder.

  In using, this amount of material is to be dissolved in a gallon of water, then mix this with a solution of a pound of soap (any good washing soap) in 4 gallons of water. Apply this combination, preferably warm, to the carpet with a scrubbing brush, remove the lather with a wooden  scraper, and dry the carpet with a flannel cloth. Continue reading Carpet Cleaner Formulae

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A leader is a dealer in hope.

— Napoleon